Analyzing (Analysis)

 

1956 Taxonomy

2001 Taxonomy

2008 Taxonomy

Defined

The ability to break down material into its component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. This may include the identification of parts, analysis of the relationships between parts, and recognition of the organizational principle involved. Learning outcomes here represent a higher intellectual level than comprehension and application because they require an understanding of both the content and the structural form of the material.

Breaking material into constituent parts, determining how the parts relate to one another and to an overall structure or purpose through differentiating, organizing, and attributing. Take concepts apart, break them down, analyze structure, recognize assumptions and poor logic, evaluate relevancy

Skills Demonstrated

Seeing patterns, organization of parts, recognition of hidden meanings, identification of components

Objective Examples

Recognize unstated assumptions, recognizes logical fallacies in reasoning, distinguish between facts and inferences, evaluate the relevancy of data, analyze the organizational structure of a work (art, music, writing)

Distinguish relevant from irrelevant parts or important from unimportant parts of presented material; determine how elements fit or function within a structure; determine the point of view, bias, values, or intent underlying presented material

Learners will break information into parts/
components to explore, develop, construct and understand relationships.

Possible Products

Survey, abstract, report, graph, checklist, chart

Survey, database, mobile, abstract, report, graph, spreadsheet, checklist, chart, outline

Mashups, chart of electronic resources, mind/concept maps, software/hardware analysis, sharable web- based spreadsheet, interactive charts, online surveys, theme based social network

Asking questions and structuring tasks: What assumptions, What conclusion can be drawn, What is the function of, What ideas justify conclusions, What inconsistencies, fallacies, What ideas apply, not apply, What is the premise?, What fact, opinion?, State the point of view of, What motive is there, What is the relationship between?, What is the theme, The least essential statements are, Implicit in the statement is the idea that..., What persuasive technique, Why?, What's the main idea, subordinate idea?, What does the author believe, assume?, What statement is relevant, extraneous to, related to, not applicable?

Techniques

  • Cracking – cracking requires the cracker to understand and operate the application or system being cracked, analyze its strengths and weaknesses and then exploit the findings.
  • Linking – this is establishing and building links within and outside of documents and web pages.
    • Diigo - Free research collaboration and social content sharing tool. The product allows you to easily share findings, complete with your highlights and virtual sticky notes. Users can join community interest groups that have tagged and annotated web resources or create their own groups.
    • Zotero - Free browser-embedded tool to help you collect, organize, site and share project/research resources.
  • Mashing - mashups are the integration of several data sources into a single resource. Mashing data currently is a complex process but as more options and sites evolve this will become an increasingly easy and accessible means of analysis. An example of a mashing is the use of cartographic data from Google Maps to add location information to real-estate data, thereby creating a new and distinct web service that was not originally provided by either source.
    • Capzles - The timeline artifact uploader works quickly and is straightforward to use. In this tool the actual day and year had to be exact or it would not save with the entered date but rather the default date of creation. So for example, if you enter Tue 4th 2010 and Tuesday was actually the third, then it will not save. Of course if you are a stickler for detail then this may well be a positive. The easiest way to get the correct day is to type the year into the box rather than scroll and then click on the date in the calendar. Once events are entered they will automatically be put in order. Video, audio and text are easily attached to the timeline.
    • Dipity - While the Dipity timeline maker has limitations such as not being able to go BC, it does allow you to add pictures, video and text to your timeline. What really makes it stand out from the crowd is that if you give your timeline points a geographical tag it will automatically produce a google map of all your key points. So, for example, if you collected the points in a person's life you could also see their geographical journey.

    • MOS Solo - a free authoring tool with an intuitive authoring interface for creating multimedia informational/educational unit.
    • Timeline based activities -- Please take the following into consideration when designing timeline based activities. Addressing the questions will assist in selecting the best tool set for completing the activity.
      • Does the assignment data really need to be a timeline, or would a series of images with text labels be equally effective? If the answer to this question is yes than chronologies may be a better approach for the assignment.
      • Will the timelines discuss events that unfold over hours, days, months, years, decades or centuries?
      • Should equal periods of time be represented by equal space on the timeline?
      • Does it make sense to combine the timeline with other visuals such as maps, graphics or pictures?
      • How much text will the students need to make the timeline understandable?
    • Recommended Tools
      • Timeline JS - a  timeline tool that is easy and intuitive to use. The tool allows you to  pull in media from different sources with built-in support for Twitter, Flickr, Google Maps, YouTube, Vimeo, Dailymotion, Wikipedia, SoundCloud and more.

      • TimeRime - Your e-mail address needs to be authenticated to begin using this tool. There is a BC function by using minus numbers (-500) You can add additional text, links, pictures and video which appear beneath the Timeline. You can add a general period which appears at the bottom of the timeline.
      • Timetoast - You must validate your e-mail before beginning. It has a very simple interface which allows you to add an event which includes a small description, a picture and a link. You must use the exact date and the timeline automatically puts the events in order. The finished timeline is a crisp, clear timeline. You can share the timeline with others although it cannot be edited without using the original password. There is a comment box for viewers to leave feedback. Multiple timelines can be made although they must be viewed separately.
      • XTimeline - You can start building the timeline without password validation. When creating the timeline you set the editing permissions. You can have a public timeline that anyone can edit or a private one where editors must be invited. You do not need to add a complete date, year and month are sufficient. (If you don't add the month it automatically becomes a 0 on the timeline)There is also the ability to show an event over a period of time by adding an end time. There is also an option to go AD/BC which is particularly useful for anyone making a history timeline. Events are added reasonably easily and can include a picture, video and a written description.
  • Reverse-engineering - this is analogous with deconstruction. It is also related to cracking often without the negative implications associated with technique. One way to design this activity is to require
    learners to develop relationship mind maps: herring or fish bone mind maps, SWOT Analysis, PMI, Venn, or 6 questions.
    • Dropmind - The product looks very good and has all the usual attachments such as notes, hyper links, pictures and icons. The unique feature here is that the mind maps can be shown in a presentation mode.
    • Mindmeister - The free basic account allows 6 mindmaps. You can export the mind map as an image file or include it in a website or blog. You can't add files to the map in the free version although you can in the paid version which also allows for the maps to be created offline. You can add icons to the map, notes, and web links. Collaborators can be invited by e-mail and quite cleverly they give a different color for each collaborator so you can see who has done all the work. The Map can be published online for viewing but doesn't allow for editing.
    • Mindomo - The free basic account includes 7 Mindmaps which should be enough for most needs. There is a fairly comprehensive help section. I found the Menu a little tricky at first but very useful once I had spent a few minutes with it. Mindomo allows you to make a colorful map which can include pictures, text, video, audio and links to webpages. It has a small library of symbols so pupils will need to learn to upload own images. Students can publish in a private Folder and share maps by e-mail and control how much the recipient can edit. Alternatively they can publish in the Public Folder allowing anyone who finds the map or is given the web address to edit or view.
    • Personal Brain - A free brainstorming and mind mapping tool. The product can be downloaded to your local computer and works on Windows, MAC and Linux machines. Developed for business but could be very useful for organizing project/research data in a none linear fashion.
    • Popplet -popplet is a mindmap/brainstorming tool. Very easy to use and good looking. It also has the option to show your map as a presentation.
    • VUE (Visual Understanding Environments) - Free open-course concept mapping tool developed by Tufts University. The product can be downloaded to your MAC or Windows machine or hosted on your own server. Multimedia, web links, datasets, and narratives can be added to the maps, and played back as a presentation.