Remembering (Knowledge)


1956 Taxonomy

2001 Taxonomy

2008 Taxonomy



The remembering of previously learned material. This may
involve the recall of a wide range of material, from specific facts to complete theories, but all that is required is the recall of appropriate information. Knowledge represents the lowest level of learning outcomes in the cognitive domain.

Recall or reorganization of specific information - element in growth of knowledge and information.


Skills Demonstrated

Observation and recall of information; knowledge of dates, events, places; knowledge of major ideas; mastery of subject matter


Objective Examples

Know common terms, know specific facts, know methods and procedures, know basic concepts, know principles

Listing, describing, identifying, retrieving, locating, favorating, searching, googling


Possible Products

Quiz, definition, fact, worksheet, test, label, list, workbook, reproduction, diagrams

Web bookmark list, social networking site, mind
map, web page, electronic flash cards, social bookmarking, search engine results page

Asking questions and structuring tasks: Who, how many, describe, when, define, name, where, count, recite, how much, list, state.


  • Bullet pointing - This is analogous with listing but in a digital format.
  • Bookmarking or favorating – this is where the students mark for later use web sites, resources and files. Students can then organize these.
  • Highlighting – This is a key element of most productivity suites, encouraging students to pick out and highlight key words and phrases is a techniques for recall.
    • Diigo web highlighter and sticky notes.
  • Searching - Search engines are now key elements of students’ research. At its simplest student are just entering a key word or phrase into the basic entry pane of the search engine.
    • Keotag - Keotag's initial face looks quite simple, with font sizes large enough to read very comfortably on the screen. Type in a keyword or phrase and a line of favicons appear for Google, Technorati, and Bloglines, as well as over a dozen social bookmarking and community news sites. At far left is a Technorati chart showing the number of blog posts containing the key phrase over the past 30 days. Clicking on a particular favicon reveals result headlines for that source, which can be subscribed to through the resulting RSS feed.
    • KwMap - touts itself as "a keyword map for the whole Internet". Type in a keyword or phrase, and an unusual interface appears. At right is an alphabetical list of related key phrases. At left is a visual component showing two axes that resemble an insect's antennae, dotted with nodes representing related terms. Clicking on a term's node takes you to another layer of loosely-related terms. This is a new search paradigm, but it offers the opportunity to explore related concepts in small leaps. Thus, a search for the word "tree" could lead you to "tea tree oil" or to a study of ancestor worship (via "family tree"). Hyper linking mimics hyper-thought.
    • Mnemomap uses multiple components to display search results. Topmost is a hierarchical graph with nodes branching off the search term. Non-clickable secondary nodes are "Token", "Tags", "Translations" and "Synonyms". Tertiary nodes are search results and can have either a tight relationship to the original search term or a tenuous relationship. Clicking on a tertiary node either adds it to a bar below for a refined search, or produces a new graph, depending on where you click. Below is a section displaying relevant results from Mnemo, Yahoo, flickr, and YouTube. Mnemomap, currently in Alpha 0.2, is a fascinating paradigm for searching, but more suited to power researchers than to the average search engine user.
    • Quintura, who recently received funding, presents text or image search results in a minimalist but graphic form resembling a free form tag cloud. Holding your mouse cursor long enough over a term in the cloud causes new, related terms to appear in the vicinity of the cursor. While the no click interface is a bit disconcerting at first, you can start over by holding the cursor over the original search term, displayed in red text. Any term in focus (hovered over) generates search results in a scrollable panel below.
  • Social networking – this is where people develop networks of friends and associates. It forges and creates links between different people. Like social bookmarks (see below) a social network can form a key element of collaborating and networking.
    • Cell phones, iPads/iPods and instant messaging tools for small action research projects
    • Omgili is a discussion-based engine. In addition to standard search results, a list of links to members is provided who have answered questions relating to a given search term. You can also ask a question, which another member might answer for you with relevant links. Recommendation engines such as omgili have their value in end applications, possibly those similar to the music recommendation site iLike (not to be confused with shopping engine, like).
  • Social bookmarking – this is an online version of local bookmarking or favorites, It is more advanced because you can draw on others bookmarks and tags. While higher order thinking skills like, collaborating and sharing, can and do make use of these skills, this is its simplest form - a simple list of sites saved to an online format rather than locally to the machine.
    • Primarywall - a web-based sticky note tool designed to allow instructors and students to work together in real time. The tool can be used to gather ideas, collaborate on exploring concept and quickly post information using a computer or mobile device.
    • Wallwisher - a collaborative tool that lets students post their thoughts on a common topic using virtual sticky notes that can incorporate images, audio and video links. The tool can also be used for note-taking, to-do lists and for feedback.
    • Also tools like Facebook, MySpace, Digg and Bebo