Understanding (Comprehension)


1956 Taxonomy

2001 Taxonomy

2008 Taxonomy


The ability to grasp the meaning of material. This may be shown by translating material from one form to another (i.e., words to numbers); by interpreting material (explaining or summarizing); and by estimating future trends (predicting consequences or effects).

Constructing meaning from oral, written, and graphics messages through interpreting, exemplifying, classifying, summarizing, inferring, comparing, and explaining. Understand uses and implications of terms, facts, methods, procedures, concepts

Skills Demonstrated

Understanding information, grasp meaning; translate knowledge into new context; interpret facts, compare, contrast; order, group, infer causes; predict consequences

Compare, demonstrate, differentiate, outline, group, fill in the blank questions

Objective Examples

Understand facts and principles, interpret verbal material, interpret charts and graphs, translate verbal material to mathematical formulas, estimate the future consequences
implied in data, justify methods and procedures

Make a list of the main events of a story, make a timeline of events, make a facts chart, write a list of information on a specific topic, use a set of symbols and graphics to draw a condition, method, or sequence

Create an interactive timeline, develop a concept map of the main ideas of a story, create & execute a search strategy of a libraries electronic holdings, research a given topic on the internet and assess the findings

Possible Products

Recitation, summary, collection, explanation, show and tell, example, quiz, list, label, outline

blog journal, categorized list of electronic resources, search strategy results, annotated list of links, wiki

Asking questions and structuring tasks: State in your own words, What does this mean?. State in one word, Is this the same as?, Explain what is happening, Indicate, What restrictions would you add?, What part doesn't fit?, Read the graph and/or table, Translate, Outline, What exceptions are there?. Which is more probable?, Summarize, Calculate, Which statements support?, Compare, Match, Contrast, Paraphrase/rephrase, Differentiate.


  • Advanced and Boolean Searching - This is a progression from the Remembering domain. Students require a greater depth of understanding to be able to create, modify and refine searches to suit their search needs. This type of search requires an understanding of the keywords, Boolean logic, advanced search features, structuring and refining searches and suitable search engine.
  • Blog Journaling – One of the simplest uses for a blog is where a learner simply “talks” “writes” or “types” a daily or task specific journal. This type of assignment can show a basic understanding of content. Blogs can also develop higher level thinking skills when used for discussion and collaboration.
    • Blogger – Google resource that allow the user to set up an unlimited number of hosted blogs for free. The resources is easy to use and has a built in tutorials.
    • Edublogs – free blog hosting service based on Wordpress. Site is dedicated to offering blogs for faculty and students. Site contains a number of teaching techniques for integrating blogs into the learning environment, and they offer classroom and campus wide solutions.
    • Wordpress – the software for this blog tool can be downloaded for free and hosted on your own server or hosting service at http://wordpress.org/, or you can free hosted blog at WordPress.com
  • Categorizing & Tagging – digital classification - organizing and classify files, web sites and materials using folders, using Del.ico.us and other similar tools beyond simple bookmarking. This can be organizing, structuring and attributing online data, meta-tagging web pages etc. The assumption is that students must be able understand the content of the pages to be able to tag and categorize it properly.

    • Diigo - Free research collaboration and social content sharing tool. The product allows you to easily share findings, complete with your highlights and virtual sticky notes. Users can join community interest groups that have tagged and annotated web resources or create their own groups.

    • Mendeley - "a free reference manager and academic social network that can help you organize your research, collaborate with others online, and discover the latest research."
    • Zotero - Free browser-embedded tool to help you collect, organize, site and share project/research resources.
  • Subscribing – Subscription takes bookmarking in its various forms and simple reading one level further. The act of subscription by itself does not show or develop understanding but often the process of reading and revisiting the subscribe feeds leads to greater understanding.
    • Bloglines - A web-based personal news aggregator that allows learners to subscribe to blogs, email groups, and websites then publish the resources that they collect on their own blogs.
  • Tagging, commenting and annotating – a variety of tools exist that allow learners to comment and annotate on web pages, pdf files and other documents. Learners will develop understanding by simply commenting on the pages. This type of activity is analogous with writing notes on hand outs, but is potentially more powerful as they can link and index these.

    • Cacoo - "a user friendly online drawing tool that allows you to create a variety of diagrams such as site map, flowchart, mind map, wire frame, UML diagram and network diagram."
    • Dabbleboard - online collaboration application centered around a whiteboard.(offers free and fee based plans)
    • Grockit Answers - allows the user to create Q&A sessions associated with YouTube videos.
    • Primarywall - a web-based sticky note tool designed to allow instructors and students to work together in real time. The tool can be used to gather ideas, collaborate on exploring concept and quickly post information using a computer or mobile device.
    • TWIDDLA - tool allows you to "browse websites in a shared, real-time whiteboard, while marking them up, sharing files and chatting."
    • VYEW - a browser-based collaboration and conferencing platform that allows users to corroboratively upload and annotate files, take screen captures of their desktop and draw with whiteboard tools.
    • Wallwisher - a collaborative tool that lets students post their thoughts on a common topic using virtual sticky notes that can incorporate images, audio and video links. The tool can also be used for note-taking, to-do lists and for feedback.